The Piraha's spoken language is more similar to humming and whistling than what we would consider speaking. It was nearly indecipherable to ethnographers that studied the tribe, until Professor Dan Everett had this interesting experience:
During one of his first visits, in the late 1970s, he began to understand what the tribespeople were saying. It was a rude awakening. Eavesdropping one night, desperately trying to piece together what little he knew of their words, he realised with a shock that the warriors, marching along the banks of the river, were planning nothing less than to murder him by moonlight.
Professor Everett ran back to the hut and locked his wife and three children inside. "I grabbed all their weapons, their bows and arrows," he says. It was an act of triumph; the outsider had caught them off guard and proved his worth. The tribe was so amazed he had actually worked out what they were saying to each other that they treated him with a cautious kind of respect. From then on, neither he nor his family had problems." (http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/unlocking-the-secret-sounds-of-language-life-without-time-or-numbers-477061.html).
Was it a lack of written language that caused their culture to live solely for the present, or was it a culture of people only concerned with the here and now that caused no written language to be formed? What I called "problems" earlier in the post would not be viewed as problems by the Piraha at all. Why would it be important to remember your dead grandparents names in a culture with no tradition of history and without a past tense to even describe it? It is so hard for us to imagine life without a written system of language, and especially without a number system or any type of words to describe quantity. But thus is life for the Piraha, and they don't seem too unhappy about it.